Chihuahua Breed: Size, Characteristics & Personality


The Chihuahua (Chihuahua) dog breed has a small, elegant and compact body. Chihuahua, the smallest dog in the world, is also known as Cihao, Chihao, Shivava, Chihuahua among the people. It has features similar to the terrier breed with its brave, self-confident and alert character. It is a dog that is suspicious of people he does not know with his small body and brave structure, and is so loving and cheerful towards his loved ones. There are two breeds with both short and long soft hairs. The Chihuahua’s glossy, straight or wavy coat comes in cream, brown, black and chocolate colors. Fringed erect ears and bright eyes complete the beauty of the Chihuahua breed. Chihuahua, which was first bred in Mexico and is the symbol of the region, is also known among the people as “Bag Dogs”. Over time, it has become one of the popular dog breeds that has gained the love and attention of people around the world.

Personality & Character Traits

Chihuahua has big personality with small body. It is a cute, loving, fun, intelligent and loyal breed. It is seen that he is more attached to a person among the people around him. He tries to fulfill the wishes of the person he is attached to. He follows his owner wherever he goes, inseparable.

Spending time with family members is very important to the Chihuahua. They want to be taken care of and cherished by their owner and the people they love. If these demands are not met, they do not hesitate to show their sullen side. When they can’t get the attention they want or they can’t get the owner to accept something they want, they can make fun of it. Chihuahua is jealous of its owner’s attention to others and does not like to be secondary in any way.

Chihuahua is a fun and talented dog. The way he shows his love to his family is somewhat juicy shape. Because licking the face of loved ones is a way for them to show their love. They love to show off their skills by dancing on their hind legs and put a sweet smile on everyone’s face. It makes him very happy to have eyes, attention and love on him. It is not recommended to leave it alone with small children in any environment. Due to its fragile structure and small body, it is very likely that they will be harmed while playing with small children.

They are shy and cautious towards strangers. Due to his instinct to protect his family, he is suspicious of people he does not know. He has a courage that is bigger than his height and has a confident stance. Despite its small size, it is one of the best guard dogs in the world, due to its carefulness, skepticism and distrust of almost everyone. Due to their suspicious approach towards strangers and their guard dog characteristics, they need to be socialized and trained at an early stage, when they are puppies. Otherwise, they may exhibit aggressive behavior. Despite its small size, they may come across as a breed that sees itself much larger and never backs down from a fight. Raising your dog correctly and well will make life easier for both you and him when he becomes an adult.


They live harmoniously and comfortably in a medium-sized house and apartment. Due to its small body and heat sensitivity, it is not a suitable dog for garden life. The biggest potential problem in apartment life is their excessive barking. You can control this situation by providing training and socialization at the puppyhood stage. The fact that they do not need much exercise also facilitates the adaptation process to apartment life. You can discharge his high energies by making him walk around the house, be active and play with his toys on the days when you can’t take him for a walk.

Chihuahua dog has heat sensitivity. Therefore, they cannot adapt to very cold environments. You can see that they shiver when they are cold. In cold, cool and humid weather, you need to protect them and balance their body temperature. For example, you can dress them in dog clothes to keep them from getting cold. Chihuahua dogs live comfortably and harmoniously in warm, not too hot areas. In order for your dog to exercise healthily and comfortably, you should pay attention to the weather conditions when you take him outside, taking into account the temperature sensitivity.

It is important for physical health on outings and you should spare time for these activities for your dog. You should not let it act alone during your outings. Walking around without a leash is dangerous for them. Because of their small size, they can become the target of larger dogs or birds of prey and be attacked. Therefore, you should ensure that your dog is engaged in activities outside, in safe environments and under your supervision.

Chihuahua is an intelligent dog. The training process will be completed easily with its fast learning. But they need a good leader. Thanks to the leader who knows how to deal with the stubborn side of the dog from time to time, your dog will not be able to continue his negative behavior. If you let your dog, even once, do the behavior you say no to and do what he wants, he may think he is the leader. As a result, he may try not to listen to you and continue to be a leader with an arrogant and arrogant expression on his face. So don’t let your dog forget that you are the manager wherever you are in training, whether at home or outside.

In order for the Chihuahua breed to be a good adult dog, it must be socialized and trained from the puppyhood period. These are the main steps that will show and determine what the dog’s character is like. According to the results, you will be able to make your dog correct his wrong behavior and acquire good habits. With the communication and interactions with different people or pets in different places and times, you can have a Chihuahua dog with better manners and behaviors.

Chihuahua Dog History

The origin of the Chihuahua breed, which is the smallest dog breed in the world, is not known exactly. There are two controversial theories about his past. The first theory is that the Chihuahua originated in Central and South America and is descended from the region’s native dog, the Techichi breed.

In America, there are carvings from the 9th century, from the Toltecs. Large-eared and round-headed dogs are depicted on Toltec carvings, similar to the Chihuahua breed. These dogs were known as Techichi, and the place of these dogs living in the Toltec civilization in the public is uncertain. When the Aztecs conquered the lands of the Toltecs, the Techichi included the dog breed among their possessions.

Techichi dogs lived in temples and were used in Aztec rituals. He was well looked after by the monks and their families. The Aztecs believed that the Techichi race had many mystical powers. It was believed that he could see the future, heal the sick, and the spirit of the dog guides the dead into the underworld. In line with this belief, the Aztecs killed Techichi for their deceased family members and buried or burned them with the deceased. This path followed has become a tradition, and it was believed that the deceased would find comfort in the underground world. In addition, the Aztecs killed the Techichi dog for food and skin.

The second theory is that they originated in China as small hairless dogs, and those dogs were brought to Mexico by Spanish traders. Later, as a result of crossbreeding of dogs brought from China with smaller domestic dogs, the ancestors of Chihuahua emerged.

Small dogs were abandoned after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec lands by Hernando Cortes in the late 1500s and early 16th century. The Techichi race lost its prominence in society and began to fend for itself. With their durable structures, they lived alone in remote villages until the mid-1800s.

It is not known which of the two theories is correct. However, in 1850, when the Americans became interested in this breed again, they found small dogs of this breed in Chihuahua, Mexico, about 300 years later. These dogs were named “Chihuahua” because they were found in the state of Chihuahua and their origin was accepted as Mexico. It is stated in some sources that the long-lived Chihuahua dog emerged from crossbreeding with Papillion or Pomeranian breeds. This race, which survived two different civilizations and managed to live alone, gained fame throughout the world. It was recognized by the AKC in 1908, and the Chihuahua dog named Beppie was first registered.

The dogs found were brought to the United States. However, it was not met with much interest in the first place, and it was not found remarkable. Later, Xavier Cugat (king of rhumba) appeared in public with his Chihuahua dog. His dog, which he always walked with, attracted the attention of the public, and his popularity increased with Xavier Cugat in the 1930s and 1940s. Since the 1960s, it has been one of the most popular breeds in America and the world. The Chihuahua dog continues to be loved and popular with each passing day.


Physical Qualities


The Chihuahua breed is known as the smallest dog in the world. Its length is maximum 25 cm and their weight varies between 1-3 kg. The reason why it is referred to as a purse dog, lap dog and toy dog ​​is related to its body characteristics. Its legs are short, its body is long and stocky. It has a straight back, proportional, balanced and elegant body. It is a self-confident breed with a single layer and soft coat, thin but strong legs. They take place in our lives as a family and city dog ​​with their elegant and delicate body.


The Chihuahua has a round, apple-like head. The Chihuahua’s apple-shaped head, large, round eyes, and distinctive erect ears are complementary to each other. It has a short, tapering and distinctive muzzle. Chihuahua puppies have a soft spot on their skull called a molera. Usually this point will close on its own when adulthood is reached. Its head structure is proportional to its body and has a balanced and elegant appearance.


The Chihuahua breed has erect, large and pointed ears. It can be seen that the Chihuahua’s ears are low when they are puppies, but after the first 3 months, they will start to stand up and reach their original appearance. It has a unique beauty and structure with its erect ears and fringed feathers.


The Chihuahua has large, round and bright eyes that are far apart. Its large eyes have a slightly protruding structure. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to their eyes and pay attention to their cleanliness. Chihuahuas are more common with black, brown or ruby ​​eye color. From time to time, you may also encounter the lighter and yellowish eyes of Chihuahuas with white fur. It is a very popular breed with its clear and bright eyes, sharp and sweet eyes.

Legs and Feet

The Chihuahua dog has slender and short legs. With their straight legs on the ground, they take stronger steps than they seem and show endurance. It is an agile dog that can move quite quickly with its small body and thin legs. They move very fast, it is quite difficult to catch their prey while chasing it. They have developed climbing abilities and can climb hills almost like a goat. The only downside to the Chihuahua’s slender legs is that they are quite delicate and easily injured. The Chihuahua has a confident, noble and glamorous gait.


The Chihuahua’s tail is long and sickle-shaped. They carry their tails on their straight backs in a sickle shape, curved backwards or sideways. Usually its tail is upright when in motion.


In the Chihuahua breed, there are two types of hair structure as single layer, long and short. Their short and long hair can be wavy or straight. Regardless of hair length or shortness, it is their favorite feature that they do not shed much and are clean in general. Longhaired Chihuahua fur is soft. The hair on the body is generally straight, but the hair in the ear area has a tufted appearance. The hair on the neck, abdomen and feet is longer. The feathers on their hind legs look like trousers due to their length. Their shiny, long, smooth and eye-catching hairs are eye-catching with their various colors.


The Chihuahua dog comes in more than one coat color. They have feathers in colors and shades such as light brown, black, yellow, tan chestnut, silver, steel blue, sable, sand and white. Besides these solid colors, it can be seen in other mottled, mottled, patterned and splashy colors. It is recommended to stay away from the merle color of the Chihuahua breed. Merle color is seen in Chihuahua dogs with genetic disorder and hearing system damage. We recommend that you pay attention to this detail when adopting or breeding your dog.

Chihuahua Grooming

Chihuahuas have two different grooming needs due to their two different coats. It will be enough to brush and comb gently from time to time to keep the smooth, fine-haired Chihuahua looking well-groomed and free of dead hair. Longhaired Chihuahuas, on the other hand, need to be combed and brushed with a soft bristle brush at least 1-2 times a week to remove dead hair, prevent tangling and mats. Longhaired chihuahuas require more weekly brushing and grooming than shorthaired Chihuahuas. The short-haired Chihuahua needs less grooming.

They generally don’t shed much. They may experience a click of intense shedding only during the seasonal transitions in spring and autumn. With regular combing and brushing, you can minimize shedding. It is thought that the long-haired Chihuahua breed will shed more, but it is seen that they do not shed more than the short-haired ones. Only after bathing can shedding be intense. If you remove dead hairs with a nice combing and drying, these spills will not be a problem.

Chihuahua, which has two types of hair, needs to be bathed at regular intervals and its nails cut. You can wipe the short-haired Chihuahua with a damp cloth from time to time, but you should not neglect general bathroom maintenance. It has been observed that the Chihuahua, which is regularly combed and brushed, stays clean and does not smell for a long time, such as two months, as long as they do not enter dirty places and do not get dirty. In order not to dry the skin, you should use products that are special for dogs during the bath. During the bathing process, you should be careful not to get water in your ears and eyes, and you should regularly check and clean your ears. For oral and dental health, you should take care to brush your teeth at least 2 times a week.

It is necessary to touch on one more issue “heat sensitivity” for the care of your dog. The Chihuahua, which has low resistance to cold weather, may start to shiver in such weather, so you will need to protect it. You can dress your dog in cool weather clothes and ensure that it is in warm environments.

If you notice a difference or problem in skin, foot, ear, nose, mouth and dental health during your weekly care and controls, you should consult your veterinarian and get information. You can prevent possible health problems with early diagnosis thanks to these cares. It is seen that Chihuahuas, who are well taken care of and taken care of, live a life of 18 years and maybe more with their loved ones.

Chihuahua Nutrition

A high-quality dog ​​food suitable for the age of the Chihuahua will meet their nutritional needs. It should have a planned diet because it is prone to genetic diseases, suitable for weight gain and is a small breed. You can meet all the nutrients it needs daily with high quality dry, wet or canned food. You can choose the product suitable for small breed dogs from Royal Canin, Proplan, Acana, Hills, N&D, Gimcat, Brit, Purina, Felix, Brit Care brands and your dog likes the taste.

If you want to give home meals, you should research which foods are suitable for dogs and stay away from prohibited foods. For example, cooked bones and high-fat foods are foods that the Chihuahua will have difficulty digesting and should not eat. In the light of the correct information about this and similar home foods, maybe once a week you can give a home-cooked meal with the thought of both a change and a treat.

To meet the daily nutritional needs of the Chihuahua dog in general: It is enough to give 1/4 – 1/2 cup of high quality dry food. By giving the amount of food in two meals during the day, you can ensure that it is consumed freshly. Please do not forget to bring water along with the food. The scale stated is a generalization and the amount your dog needs may increase or decrease depending on its weight and height. It is important not to overeat and exercise as they tend to gain weight. If necessary, you can get veterinary support for weight control and diet.

Chihuahua Exercise

The Chihuahua is an energetic breed. He likes to run around, walk and play. A small space, not too big, will be enough for them to exercise. Although they are known as purse dogs and are suitable to be carried on the lap with their small bodies, walking is a general need for them. Running after the owner, taking short walks at low pace and playing games with him will meet his daily activity needs. For this, it is sufficient to devote 30 minutes of your day to activities or short 1-kilometer walks. Considering that small dogs are less inclined to walk, if you have an inactive Chihuahua dog, you should encourage him to walk and do activities.

Spending time with your dog, apart from playing games at home, taking a walk outside is necessary for both their physical and mental health. Behavioral problems such as barking and biting can be seen in Chihuahuas whose exercise needs are not met and who do not go out for activities such as walking and jogging.

While you want your dog to stay active and fit, try not to tire him out too much. This breed, which likes to go for a walk with its owner and play with its toys, may not realize that it is tired when it is happy. If his pace is extra slow and he is out of breath during the walk, you should understand that he is tired and it is time to return home. It is generally recommended that you do the exercises without removing the leash. Due to their small size, they can be attacked by birds of prey or large dogs. If you believe that you can protect it against possible dangers under your supervision and that there is no danger in your garden with security measures, you can let it roam without a leash. A happy and healthy Chihuahua who exercises will energize everyone around him with his joy and sweetness.

Chihuahua Training

The Chihuahua is an intelligent and alert dog. It is very eager to please its owner, loved ones. These characteristics are reflected positively in their education. If you start training your dog when he is a puppy, the results you will get will be faster. These vigilant little ones need a good leader. Otherwise, if they do not want to do something, they try to make their owner accept what they want in different ways, and if they succeed, they want to continue this behavior. You shouldn’t let him take the lead and make his own decisions.

A talented breed, the Chihuahua excels at many dog ​​sports that involve skill and obedience. In addition to the obedience training, area protection and toilet training you will give your dog first, it is also recommended to train against biting behavior that may occur in the future. Biting behavior, which may appear as a behavioral disorder, may not be seen in adulthood if it is intervened at an early stage.

Another starting point for your training is to socialize your dog. Spending time in dog parks, meeting and playing with different people and animals will affect his development. You can observe your dog’s bad habits and intervene early with the behaviors exhibited while socializing.

Socialized and trained, the Chihuahua dog’s usually cold approach to strangers can change, the aggressive side of his protective personality can be reduced to a minimum, their barking can be controlled and the biting behavior they use to defend themselves can come to an end. The realization of all these is not difficult at all with a good education and leader.

You can have a fun process in your training, depending on your relationship with your dog. It all depends on your patience, dedication, consistent and loving behavior. You should not resort to harsh methods in your dog’s misbehavior. Try to increase his interest in training by loving, praising and rewarding your dog with positive reinforcement. Being appreciated and loved for his good behavior will enable him to continue these behaviors. This way, the closer you get to your dog, the faster you will achieve success.

Chihuahu Health

Chihuahu are generally healthy little dogs, but they are also prone to certain genetic ailments. Dog breeders are required to routinely health screen all breeding stocks for puppies to be genetically healthy. If you want to own or buy a dog, you should make sure that the breeder has done these checks.

Apart from genetic health problems, there are also small details that you need to pay attention to for your dog’s health. Chihuahu are prone to problems such as rheumatism, colds and sore throats. Their small size can easily gain weight and cause health problems. Protruding eye structure, large ears are areas that need to be protected and carefully cared for. Tear stains flowing under the eyes should be cleaned regularly with special products. They should not come into contact with products such as chocolate or fertilizer, which will be poisoned, because the poisoning time is very short. The molera on their heads, which should close towards adulthood, can remain open throughout their lives. You need to monitor this situation closely, if it doesn’t close your dog will become more prone to injury. Due to their small and short muzzle, it is possible to make snoring and wheezing sounds. These are the general problems of Chihuahuas. It is enough to be a good dog owner to notice and pay attention to these.

Some of the genetic problems seen in your Chihuahua dog include potential heart problems (patent ductus arteriosus, heart murmur, pulmonic stenosis, mitral valve disease), idiopathic epilepsy, hypoglycemia, collapsed trachea, hydrocephalus, open fontanel, tremor, eye disease, and patella luxation ( loose knee caps). You should learn what the symptoms of these ailments are and how they should be treated. If your dog has a suspected health problem, you should consult your veterinarian and have the necessary tests done as soon as possible.

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